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Polyploids refer to organisms with more than two complete sets of chromosomes. Polyploid plants often exhibit increased vigor than their diploid parents in several aspects. Although polyploidy often results in seedless offspring due to meiotic errors, the fertility can be restored by doubling genome to create allopolyploidy. Polyploids are also important as bridges for genetic transfer between species of hybrid incompatibility, allowing the creation of plant varieties with enhanced pest resistance and stress tolerance.
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